Hans-Friedrich Mueller

Hans-Friedrich Mueller >

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The Greek Alphabet & Pronunciation
Episode 1 of Greek 101
Learn the 24 letters of the Greek alphabet using the restored classical pronunciation, recognizing that there was some variation in pronunciation in the ancient world. Practice the pairings of vowels called diphthongs, and sound out a selection of words that…
First-Declension Nouns
Episode 2 of Greek 101
Discover that Greek nouns have gender and their endings supply a host of information, such as whether the case is nominative, genitive, dative, or accusative--a function usually performed by word order or prepositions in English. Begin with the eight noun…
Basic Rules of Greek Accentuation
Episode 3 of Greek 101
Invented over two thousand years ago by Aristophanes of Byzantium, head of the Library of Alexandria, accents are important clues to the pronunciation of Greek words, and they often provide other crucial information. Learn the rules for the three types…
Additional Patterns of the First Declension
Episode 4 of Greek 101
Look at two variations in the pattern of the first declension--one used in Homeric Greek and the other in Koine, the Greek of the New Testament. Despite being separated by almost a thousand years, the two dialects have remarkable continuity.
Adjective Forms & Second-Declension Nouns
Episode 6 of Greek 101
So far, you have studied first-declension nouns, which are mainly feminine. Now expand your range into masculine and neuter nouns, many of which use second-declension endings. Practice these endings together with their adjectival forms in words that you will encounter…
Verbs in the Present Tense
Episode 5 of Greek 101
Greek verbs can be described in terms of person, number, tense, voice, and mood. In this lesson, focus on verbs that are present active indicative. Learn that voice, person, and number are indicated by endings on the verb base. For…
Verbs in the Imperfect Tense
Episode 9 of Greek 101
Greek has several ways of talking about the past. Focus on the imperfect tense, which describes an action that was ongoing in the past--for example, "The Achaeans were dishonoring the gods." The imperfect is built by adding a vowel prefix,…
Understanding Dactylic Hexameter
Episode 14 of Greek 101
Read the first five lines of Homer's Iliad, focusing on vocabulary and grammar. Then investigate the quality that makes Homer a great poet: his use of sound and meter. Homer composed in dactylic hexameter, which was used throughout antiquity. Learn…
First- & Second-Declension Pronouns
Episode 8 of Greek 101
Delve deeper into the first and second declensions, discovering that the endings for demonstrative adjectives and pronouns differ in only minor ways from those for nouns. Practice using different types of pronouns, and learn that they underwent a fascinating evolution…
Verbs in the Future & Aorist Tenses
Episode 10 of Greek 101
Learn two new tenses: the future and aorist. In the process, encounter the concept of principal parts, which are indispensable for recognizing different tenses. Concentrate on the first three principal parts for regular verbs (present and imperfect, future, and aorist).…
Building Basic Translation Skills
Episode 7 of Greek 101
Review what you have learned up until now. Then try your hand at translating from English to Greek--first into Homeric Greek and then into Koine, noticing the key differences between the two dialects. Close by reading the opening passage of…
Practicing Dactylic Hexameter
Episode 15 of Greek 101
Practice reciting the first five lines of the Iliad, hearing how the meter enhances the meaning of the text. Then study third declension neuter endings, and read three verses of unadapted New Testament Greek, covering the conversation between the angel…
Aorist & Imperfect Middle/Passive
Episode 17 of Greek 101
In the previous lesson, you learned the primary middle/passive endings, which are used for the present and future tenses. Now compare these to the secondary middle/passive endings, which are used for past tenses. Then read lines 11-16 of the Iliad,…
The Middle/Passive Voice - Present & Future
Episode 16 of Greek 101
Go deeper into Homer with lines 6-10 of the Iliad. Then discover the middle and passive voices. The passive operates as in English, with the subject receiving the action of the verb. However, English doesn't have a middle voice, which…
Forming and Using Infinitives
Episode 19 of Greek 101
Study the fifth principal part, which forms the basis of the perfect and pluperfect middle/passive, and the sixth and final principal part, which forms the basis of the aorist passive. Then learn how to construct the infinitive in different tenses,…
Third-Declension Nouns
Episode 13 of Greek 101
Encounter the third and final declension, focusing, as usual, on the genitive, which is the key to identifying the declension. This is especially important with the third declension, since the noun base is not obvious from the nominative form. Then…
Irregular Verbs & Tips for Further Study
Episode 36 of Greek 101
Learn two more irregular verbs, to go and to know, seeing them at work in sentences from John and Matthew. Then complete your last passage from the Iliad, lines 118-125, and consider strategies for continuing your Greek studies--whether you want…
Perfect & Pluperfect Active
Episode 18 of Greek 101
Learn the fourth principal part, which governs the formation of the perfect and pluperfect tenses. Discover the great utility of these past tenses for talking about completed action. Study an example of the perfect in John 3:13, and read lines…
First-Declension Masculine Nouns
Episode 11 of Greek 101
Although first declension nouns are generally feminine, some masculine nouns also fall into this class. Learn how to recognize them (as well as the declensions of all nouns) from the nominative and genitive forms supplied in Greek dictionaries. Then investigate…
The Root Aorist
Episode 12 of Greek 101
The aorist is a past tense that makes no reference to the duration or completion of an action, and focuses instead on the simple act. In Lesson 10, you learned the morphology of the first aorist. Now study the second…