Hans-Friedrich Mueller

Hans-Friedrich Mueller >

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The Greek Alphabet & Pronunciation
Episode 1 of Greek 101
Learn the 24 letters of the Greek alphabet using the restored classical pronunciation, recognizing that there was some variation in pronunciation in the ancient world. Practice the pairings of vowels called diphthongs, and sound out a selection of words that…
First-Declension Nouns
Episode 2 of Greek 101
Discover that Greek nouns have gender and their endings supply a host of information, such as whether the case is nominative, genitive, dative, or accusative--a function usually performed by word order or prepositions in English. Begin with the eight noun…
Basic Rules of Greek Accentuation
Episode 3 of Greek 101
Invented over two thousand years ago by Aristophanes of Byzantium, head of the Library of Alexandria, accents are important clues to the pronunciation of Greek words, and they often provide other crucial information. Learn the rules for the three types…
Understanding Dactylic Hexameter
Episode 14 of Greek 101
Read the first five lines of Homer's Iliad, focusing on vocabulary and grammar. Then investigate the quality that makes Homer a great poet: his use of sound and meter. Homer composed in dactylic hexameter, which was used throughout antiquity. Learn…
The Middle/Passive Voice - Present & Future
Episode 16 of Greek 101
Go deeper into Homer with lines 6-10 of the Iliad. Then discover the middle and passive voices. The passive operates as in English, with the subject receiving the action of the verb. However, English doesn't have a middle voice, which…
Verbs in the Present Tense
Episode 5 of Greek 101
Greek verbs can be described in terms of person, number, tense, voice, and mood. In this lesson, focus on verbs that are present active indicative. Learn that voice, person, and number are indicated by endings on the verb base. For…
Aorist & Imperfect Middle/Passive
Episode 17 of Greek 101
In the previous lesson, you learned the primary middle/passive endings, which are used for the present and future tenses. Now compare these to the secondary middle/passive endings, which are used for past tenses. Then read lines 11-16 of the Iliad,…
Additional Patterns of the First Declension
Episode 4 of Greek 101
Look at two variations in the pattern of the first declension--one used in Homeric Greek and the other in Koine, the Greek of the New Testament. Despite being separated by almost a thousand years, the two dialects have remarkable continuity.
Perfect & Pluperfect Active
Episode 18 of Greek 101
Learn the fourth principal part, which governs the formation of the perfect and pluperfect tenses. Discover the great utility of these past tenses for talking about completed action. Study an example of the perfect in John 3:13, and read lines…
Practicing Dactylic Hexameter
Episode 15 of Greek 101
Practice reciting the first five lines of the Iliad, hearing how the meter enhances the meaning of the text. Then study third declension neuter endings, and read three verses of unadapted New Testament Greek, covering the conversation between the angel…
Verbs in the Future & Aorist Tenses
Episode 10 of Greek 101
Learn two new tenses: the future and aorist. In the process, encounter the concept of principal parts, which are indispensable for recognizing different tenses. Concentrate on the first three principal parts for regular verbs (present and imperfect, future, and aorist).…
Verbs in the Imperfect Tense
Episode 9 of Greek 101
Greek has several ways of talking about the past. Focus on the imperfect tense, which describes an action that was ongoing in the past--for example, "The Achaeans were dishonoring the gods." The imperfect is built by adding a vowel prefix,…
Adjective Forms & Second-Declension Nouns
Episode 6 of Greek 101
So far, you have studied first-declension nouns, which are mainly feminine. Now expand your range into masculine and neuter nouns, many of which use second-declension endings. Practice these endings together with their adjectival forms in words that you will encounter…
The Root Aorist
Episode 12 of Greek 101
The aorist is a past tense that makes no reference to the duration or completion of an action, and focuses instead on the simple act. In Lesson 10, you learned the morphology of the first aorist. Now study the second…
Building Basic Translation Skills
Episode 7 of Greek 101
Review what you have learned up until now. Then try your hand at translating from English to Greek--first into Homeric Greek and then into Koine, noticing the key differences between the two dialects. Close by reading the opening passage of…
Regular -μι Verbs in the Active
Episode 32 of Greek 101
Bring your study of Greek verbs to a close by focusing on an important class of verbs that end in mi in the first principal part. There aren't many such mi verbs, but they are useful and common, and they…
Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns
Episode 29 of Greek 101
Investigate the use of Greek demonstrative adjectives and pronouns, which correspond to English words such as this, that, these, and those. Chart a rich sampling of demonstratives, including a reflexive pronoun, in Luke 23:28-29. Then continue with the heightening tension…
Personal & Possessive Pronouns
Episode 30 of Greek 101
Plumb the depths of Greek personal and possessive pronouns. Begin with the historically later forms of the New Testament, revisiting the Lord's Prayer in Matthew. Then focus on the pronouns in your next extract from the Iliad, lines 76-80. Along…
Active Participles
Episode 20 of Greek 101
Participles are verbal adjectives. Like verbs, they have tense and voice. Like adjectives, they agree in case, number, and gender with the nouns they modify. Learn to form participles in different tenses of the active voice. Study examples in the…
The Verb εἰμί
Episode 35 of Greek 101
The most common mi verb is also one of the most irregular: to be. Study its forms, discovering that, as unpredictable as it appears, it is more regular than its English counterparts: I am, you are, he is. Then learn…