The Middle Ptolemies - The Decline
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt

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The First Ptolemies
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
The Greek kings known as the Ptolemies ran Egypt like a business. Taxes were heavy; government was oppressive. There are two great Hellenistic achievements, however: the Pharos Lighthouse and the famed Library of Alexandria.
Animal Mummies
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
The Ptolemies had a fascination with mummies, especially animal mummies. We will take an in-depth look at the practice of animal mummification, which became a major industry during the Ptolemaic period.
Jews and Greek Rule: The Heliodorus Affair
Investigate the strange episode known as the Heliodorus Affair. This power struggle between Jerusalem's elite families during the time of the Ptolemies and Seleucids became a key turning point in the history of Jews in Judea. We also see echoes of this conflict in Gospel accounts of taxation.
The Middle Kingdom - Dynasty XI
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
The Middle Kingdom is the story of Egypt's resurrection. Dynasty XI is the dynasty of reunification, slowly bringing Egypt back to unity and greatness.
Egypt According To Cleopatra
Part of the Series: Secrets of Archaeology
Take a virtual reality tour of one of history's most intriguing ancient civilizations. Queen Cleopatra serves as our virtual tour guide through Egypt during the time of the Ptolemy's, from the city of Alexandria to the isle of Philae.
Cleopatra's Family
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
For a Ptolemy, dodging assassination by one's own kin was often the hardest part of ruling. Learn how Cleopatra's father managed this task, and trace the course of Egypt's growing - and ultimately fatal - interaction with the rising power of Rome.
The Second Intermediate Period
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt is the only civilization in history to have been eclipsed twice and bounced back to prominence on both occasions. Dynasties XIII through XVII saw the Middle Kingdom's decline, the advent of foreign rule, and finally, the expulsion of the Hyksos by a heroic prince of Thebes and his…
Rise of the Black Pharaohs
PBS
Around 800 BC, Kush, a little-known subject state of Egypt, rose up and conquered the Egyptians, enthroned its own Pharaohs, and ruled over the empire of King Tut for nearly 100 years. This unlikely chapter of history has been buried by the Egyptians and belittled by early archaeologists, who refused…
The Uluburun Shipwreck
The Uluburun shipwreck, a vessel that sank in 1300 B.C. off the coast of what is now modern Turkey, ranks among the greatest archaeological finds of all time. Learn about its remarkable underwater excavation, and wonder at the ship's fabulous cargo, from ancient raw materials such as copper ingots and…
The Decline of Dynasty XIX
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
Short reigns and a lack of major building projects betray the beginnings of Egypt's long slide from greatness.
Dynasty XXII - Egypt United
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
Libyans ruled from the Delta city of Bubastis for 200 years and fought to restore Egypt's greatness. During this time, Egypt became involved with the biblical kingdoms of Judah and Israel. In the end, Egypt suffered division once more, but this time the two halves did not fight one another.
The Rosetta Stone, and Much More
Part of the Series: The History of Ancient Egypt
The Rosetta Stone is a large granite stela, carved under Ptolemy V and unearthed by French troops in 1799. With inscriptions of the same text in Greek and Egyptian, it provided the key to deciphering the ancient Egyptian language. Learn the four scripts in which ancient Egyptian can be written,…